President Biden’s $1.52 trillion spending proposal released on Friday calls for a vast infusion of funds across federal agencies, with proposals for billions of dollars in additional spending in areas like education, public health, climate change and housing.
The plan, which does not include Mr. Biden’s sprawling infrastructure proposals, is for the 2022 fiscal year, which begins Oct. 1.
It represents a sharp break from the budget priorities of President Donald J. Trump, who sought to cut funding for domestic programs.
Here are some of the notable parts of Mr. Biden’s plan.
Fighting climate change across agencies.
Mr. Biden’s spending proposal would significantly increase government spending to fight and adapt to the damages of a warming planet.
He proposes more than $14 billion in additional funding compared with the 2021 year, with that money infused across nearly every federal agency.
The broad-based increase in climate spending would come on top of clean energy spending in Mr. Biden’s proposed infrastructure legislation, which would pour roughly $500 billion on programs like increasing electric vehicle production and building climate-resilient roads and bridges.
Over all, the Energy Department would see its funding increased by $4.3 billion, or 10.2 percent over the 2021 fiscal year, including additional money to research and develop technologies like new nuclear power plants or hydrogen fuels. It also includes $1.9 billion for a new initiative that would help deploy low-carbon energy projects around the county and speed up permitting for transmission lines.
The spending plan would also increase funding for the Environmental Protection Agency to $11.2 billion, $2 billion more than the 2021 fiscal year enacted level, including about $110 million to restore hundreds of positions left vacant after employees left the agency in recent years.
And it would fund what the White House calls “the largest investment in environmental justice in history,” requesting $1.4 billion for programs to redress the disproportionate effects of pollution borne by poor and minority communities.
The budget outline aims to embed climate programs into agencies that have not historically been seen at the forefront of tackling global warming. For instance, the Agriculture Department would receive an additional $161 million for programs to measure and verify actions that farmers take to sequester more carbon dioxide in their soil, $100 million to create jobs plugging methane leaks from abandoned oil and gas wells, and a $40 million increase for “climate hubs” that aim to give farmers more information about the effects of climate change on agriculture.
The Pentagon’s overall spending request of $715 billion includes spending on programs to make military bases more resilient to the effects of climate change, like stronger storms and rising sea levels. — Coral Davenport, Lisa Friedman and Brad Plumer
Increasing education funding for high-poverty schools.
The Biden administration is asking Congress to raise funding for high-poverty schools by $20 billion, which it describes as the largest year-over-year increase to the Title I program since its inception under President Lyndon B. Johnson.
The proposal also asks for billions of dollars in increases to early-childhood education, programs serving students with disabilities and efforts to staff schools with nurses, counselors and mental health professionals — described as an attempt to help children recover from the pandemic, but also a longstanding priority for teachers unions and other education advocates.
The maximum Pell grant for college students of modest means would rise by $400, the largest increase since 2009, and the grants would be available to so-called Dreamers, immigrants who were brought to the United States illegally as children.
Mr. Biden is also looking to further expand funding for Head Start programs, which provide early intervention education and support for low-income students. The administration asked for $1.2 billion more in funding for it, in addition to $1 billion provided in Mr. Biden’s coronavirus relief package. — Dana Goldstein and Katie Rogers
More health funding amid the pandemic.
Mr. Biden’s plan calls for an almost 25 percent increase in discretionary funding — to $131.7 billion — for the Department of Health and Human Services, the hub of the federal government’s pandemic response.
That includes a $1.6 billion increase for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an agency that public health experts have viewed as chronically underfunded and neglected until public health emergencies. Data collection would be modernized, and epidemiologists would be trained to support local health departments.
Almost a billion dollars would go to the Strategic National Stockpile, the country’s emergency medical reserve, for supplies and efforts to restructure it that began last year.
The plan also calls for $6.5 billion for a new agency, the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health — part of a requested $51 billion for the typically well-funded National Institutes of Health. The agency would fund federal research, with a focus on cancer and diseases like diabetes and Alzheimer’s.
Outside of pandemic response, the White House wants to expand spending in several areas that were also budget priorities for the Trump administration, like fighting the opioid epidemic and H.I.V. and AIDS.
But on other matters, it diverges clearly from Trump administration policies. The Biden spending proposal would expand spending on the Title X program that provides family-planning services to low-income Americans. Under Mr. Trump, that program was retooled to reduce the number of eligible providers. The plan would also double spending on research into the causes of gun-related deaths and injuries, a long-neglected area because of its political overtones.
But most health spending by the federal government is not discretionary, meaning the proposal released on Friday does not show what the Biden administration hopes to do in Medicaid, Medicare and the Affordable Care Act marketplaces. — Margot Sanger-Katz and Noah Weiland
Dealing with border security and immigration.
The spending request reflected an increasing sense of urgency within the Biden administration to deter migration to the southwestern border, including $1.2 billion toward investing in border security technology, like sensors to detect illegal crossings and tools to improve entry ports.
The request does not seek any new funding for the border wall construction begun under Mr. Trump.
Mr. Biden also proposed $4.3 billion to speed up the release of minors to sponsors in the United States, to assist minors in immigration court proceedings and to provide mental health services to children separated from their parents under the Trump administration’s zero-tolerance policy, which led to the separation of thousands of immigrant families.
The funds would also be spent on processing more refugees displaced overseas. Mr. Biden has pledged to raise the cap on refugee admissions from the historically low annual cap of 15,000, although he has yet to sign the emergency determination.
The administration is scrambling to find shelter space for children and teenagers crossing the border without their parents. Nearly 5,000 are backed up into border detention facilities because of the lack of capacity in the shelters managed by the Office of Refugee Resettlement.
Mr. Biden, who campaigned on increasing oversight over Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement, is requesting an additional $84 million for those agencies over the 2021 enacted funds. The money would be used to improve investigations of work force complaints, “including those related to white supremacy or ideological and nonideological beliefs.” — Zolan Kanno-Youngs
More money for federal housing assistance.
The proposal includes a major expansion of housing programs for low-income families and the homeless, with Mr. Biden requesting a $9 billion increase in the budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
That is on top of the $213 billion slated for housing in the infrastructure plan, which could transform an agency relegated to backwater status under Mr. Trump into a key player in Mr. Biden’s efforts to target structural racial and economic inequality.
The plan includes a significant expansion of federal housing assistance voucher programs, the main conduit for low-income housing funding, adding an additional 200,000 families to the 2.3 million already on the rolls. That alone would account for a $5.4 billion increase in the department’s annual budget.
The spending proposal would also further the anti-discrimination agenda championed by the department’s new secretary, Marcia L. Fudge, by funding “mobility-related supportive services” to make it easier for families to move into more racially, ethnically and economically diverse neighborhoods.
The plan also includes $500 million in additional funding for homeless programs, targeting more than 100,000 additional households, including domestic violence survivors and homeless youth. That funding is in addition to the $5 billion for emergency housing vouchers already provided in Mr. Biden’s pandemic relief bill. — Glenn Thrush
Bolstering labor enforcement.
The spending proposal would fund the Labor Department at $14.2 billion, a 14 percent increase. That includes a 17 percent increase for the department’s enforcement agencies, like the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the agency responsible for ensuring that workers are protected from the coronavirus.
OSHA was widely criticized last year for failing to adequately inspect worksites in industries like meatpacking, where thousands of workers became infected. According to a report by the National Employment Law Project, a worker advocacy group, the agency had fewer than 900 inspectors at the outset of 2020, the smallest number in more than 40 years.
The Biden administration has also proposed an increase in the funding that states receive to administer unemployment insurance, including an update in the formula that allocates such funds and $100 million to upgrade information technology. — Noam Scheiber
A modest increase in defense spending.
The White House requested a 1.7 percent increase for defense spending and said it would prioritize China as the Pentagon’s “top challenge” while also seeking to deter what it calls “destabilizing behavior” from Russia.
The proposal also places funding for the United States’ overseas combat operations into the Pentagon’s budget, ending the practice of requesting those funds separately.
Several large procurement programs begun by previous administrations remain, like the effort to modernize America’s nuclear arsenal and build new submarines capable of firing nuclear missiles, as well as the Pentagon’s efforts to create new long-range and hypersonic weapons.
The coronavirus’s effects on the military, which have sidelined warships and caused outbreaks on bases ashore, are reflected in requests for funding to better monitor emerging infectious diseases in cooperation with allies and to develop medical countermeasures.
The Pentagon is currently engaged in what it calls a “global posture review” that is assessing which weapons, vehicles and bases are necessary for the threats it sees the military needing to address, and the plan notes that some existing programs will be defunded — with that money redirected toward those it finds are needed to address the national security challenges identified by that study. — John Ismay
At the State Department, preventing future pandemics and migration.
The spending plan increases support for two of Mr. Biden’s top priorities with foreign roots: curbing the pandemic and halting migration from Central America.
It calls for $10 billion for global health programs — including, notably, $1 billion for security efforts to detect, prevent and respond to future pandemics.
It also would provide $861 million to combat corruption, prevent violence, reduce poverty and bolster economies in Central America in an attempt to curb the flow of thousands of migrants from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras who head to the southwestern border each year. The money would be the first tranche of a four-year plan to ultimately spend $4 billion to help stabilize those countries and end the migrants’ need to flee.
Over all, the spending blueprint calls for $63.5 billion for the State Department and international programs — a nearly 12 percent increase from current spending levels of $56.7 billion. Officials said that would include funds to grow the number of career diplomats and Civil Service employees. — Lara Jakes
A beefed-up Internal Revenue Service.
The Biden spending proposal makes good on the administration’s belief that a modernized Internal Revenue Service is needed to properly administer the tax system and that investing in tax collection will pay for itself.
The proposal asks for $14.9 billion for the Treasury Department, including $13.2 billion for the I.R.S. That is a 10.4 percent increase above current funding levels for the tax collection agency. The additional money would go toward increased oversight of tax returns of high-income individuals and companies and to improve customer service at the I.R.S.
The additional money for the Treasury Department would also be used for bolstering Community Development Financial Institutions, a tool that Treasury Secretary Janet L. Yellen views as critical to helping minority communities gain access to capital. It would also bolster the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network to help ensure that criminals cannot take advantage of financial reporting loopholes. — Alan Rappeport