Bossware is a big legal risk

On Halloween 2022, National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) General Counsel
Jennifer Abruzzo released a memo that
likely horrified plenty of executives. She announced her intention to
“protect employees…from intrusive or abusive electronic monitoring and
automated management practices.”

In other words, the NLRB declared war on bossware. And it’s not alone. Beyond
Abruzzo’s memo lies an evolving, growing array of laws and regulations that
seek to protect employees’ privacy rights.

Numerous countries and a handful of US states, such as California and New York,
have already imposed restrictions on how companies
can use bossware. Given the public sentiment swaying against bossware and toward
privacy, we can likely expect more laws and tougher enforcement from regulators.

If you’re in charge of purchasing, implementing, or maintaining employee
surveillance tools at your organization, this is a good time to step back and
evaluate what tools you’re using and how you’re using them.

What is bossware?

“Bossware,” a term the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
coined in 2020, refers to a category of
technologies that companies use to monitor employees. What this looks like
varies depending on the workplace.

Abruzzo’s memo cites things like wearable devices for warehouse workers and GPS
cameras on truck drivers, but she pays particular attention to computer-based
surveillance, calling out “keyloggers and software that takes screenshots,
webcam photos, or audio recordings throughout the day.” The memo goes on to
mention tools that keep watching when employees are off the clock, such as
those that “track employees’ whereabouts and communications using
employer-issued phones or wearable devices, or apps installed on workers’ own

Beyond such obvious types of surveillance, bossware can come in more subtle
forms, like tools that aggregate employee sentiment from emails or their private
social media–ostensibly to gauge their job satisfaction.

Bosses who use this technology report that their primary concern is
productivity–according to a survey, the
top use cases are checking how employees spend their time (79%) and confirming
whether employees are working the entire day (65%).

These reasons also overlap with security concerns. The same study shows that
50% of bosses use employee monitoring tools to check whether employees are using
work devices for personal use, which touches on security and productivity. And
there are plenty of tools that aren’t designed primarily for surveillance but
are still prone to misuse–for instance, data loss prevention (DLP) tools that capture
everything a user does.

Why Now? Remote Work and the Bossware Backlash

It would be fair for bossware vendors and customers to wonder, “why now?” The
idea of remotely monitoring employees has been around for decades, and many
employee monitoring software vendors have been in business for years. But three
changes have made the backlash to bossware swifter and harsher than many would
have expected:

  1. The development and proliferation of more advanced, automated forms of

  2. The shift toward remote work.

  3. The rise of privacy rights and the labor movement.

Automation enables spying at scale

In the past, keeping tabs on employees required a human touch. Scientific
management, sometimes called Taylorism, emerged in the early 1900s and
encouraged factory supervisors to time their employees with stopwatches. Later,
CCTV footage helped bosses mind the store, but even that type of surveillance
was constrained by the ability of people to go over the footage.

Today, bosses don’t have to skulk around break rooms to spy on workers; they can
require employees to install software that logs their keystrokes, accesses
their webcam, and more. Bosses can deploy these tools at scale and run them
passively. That means bosses can monitor all employees as standard procedure,
not as a result of individual cases of suspicious activity.

Companies can now read emails and analyze the sentiment of their contents,
track employees on social media, monitor the movements and clicks of employees’ mouses and keyboards, identify which applications employees are using and for how long, and record webcam video. Some bossware can even aggregate all of this data so
bosses can make predictions before employee sentiment solidifies or employee
action takes place.

These tools mark a qualitative leap over earlier forms of surveillance, and
their widespread use on employees–who may not even be aware they’re being
watched–makes plenty of people uncomfortable.

Remote work made bossware more intrusive

The current rebellion against bossware and workplace surveillance began with
the COVID-19 pandemic, which accelerated the remote work trend.

You probably already know this but it’s still helpful to see it in such a satisfyingly symmetrical graph.

The rise of remote work makes employee surveillance even more intrusive because
employees are likely to be working from home or using personal devices, and
bossware tools aren’t capable of recognizing those boundaries. The EFF found,
for example, that many bossware products “don’t distinguish between
work-related activity and personal account credentials, bank data, or medical

This is taken from the homepage of an employee monitoring tool. See if you
can spot the really concerning part.

This failure to distinguish between professional and private life is especially
stark when we consider webcams. In an office setting, requiring employees to
keep their webcams on at all times might be irritating. But the same policy is
much more invasive when employees work from home, and the webcam captures their
non-consenting partners, roommates, or children.

The blurring of lines between the professional and personal worlds gets even
more complex when you consider BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) policies. Research
has shown 69% of employees have used personal laptops or printers for work
, and 70%
have used work devices for personal tasks.

Many companies offer their employees computers and phones, but might not have
clear policies around whether employees can use the devices off hours and the
consequences of using the device for non-work purposes.

The labor movement and the “techlash”

The fight against bossware has something of a head start because it’s
piggybacking on the victories in the larger movement for consumer privacy.

When Facebook first became popular, for example, many users didn’t care–or
didn’t realize they should care–where their data went. Now, after years of data
misuse and breaches, many people are wary of giving companies access to their
personal data. Mark Zuckerberg himself, quite symbolically, went from Time
magazine’s Person of the Year in 2010 to The New Republic’s Scoundrel of the

in 2021.

Workers might not be able to join in the privacy backlash were it not for the
resurgent labor movement and a tight market that has put employers at a
disadvantage for the first time in decades. Gallup Research from 2022 shows
union approval is at its highest level since 1965. Though unionization in
technology companies is still relatively rare, Protocol research shows 50% of
tech workers are interested in joining a union.

And as interest turns into action, workers will have a greater ability to
protest intrusive surveillance, especially when it’s illegally used to prevent
them from organizing.

Bossware and the Law

The unspoken truth, known by many executives, is that laws are only as
powerful as their enforcement mechanisms. Many of those executives have had no
qualms about violating labor laws, confident that they’d never be held to
account, or if they were, the punishment would amount to a speed bump.

The NLRB, referenced at the top of this article, is underfunded and
understaffed, having not received a budget increase since 2014.
After decades of the Reagan-inspired “starve the beast” mentality, government agencies are often weaker than the
industries they are tasked with regulating.

But in the U.S., times are changing under a pro-union administration. And
around the world, regulators are holding scofflaw companies to account.

Labor laws are on the cutting edge against bossware

The NLRB is taking a stand against bossware because of how frequently it is
used to suppress or discourage workplace organizing. For example, a
“productivity tool” that tells bosses who each employee speaks to and for how
long has a clear potential for misuse.

Abruzzo writes in her memo that numerous types of bossware already run afoul
of, in her words, “settled Board law.” For example, monitoring “protected
concerted activity” (i.e., workplace organizing) has been illegal for decades.

This kind of monitoring was more clear-cut when it involved taking pictures of
picket signs and video recording employees in break rooms, but now, the NLRB is
looking into passive, virtual monitoring. And for good reason: in an
interview with OneZero,
the “employee listening” platform Perceptyx explains that it offers, by default,
a “union vulnerability index.” With it, the company explains, employers can
log into their platform and see that “20% of that group is at risk of

Abruzzo also makes clear that if companies use tools that aren’t strictly for
employee monitoring to police protected activities, then they run afoul of
Section 8(a)(1). In another article, we covered Slack’s privacy policy and explained how bosses
could see all of your private messages. A company could face the consequences
of using Slack like bossware (such as if a manager downloaded an employee’s
private messages to see whether they were comparing their salaries or
considering collective bargaining).

Beyond extant law, Abruzzo also writes about using “settled labor-law principles
in new ways.” This is not an uncommon legal practice because the law,
notoriously slow and difficult to update, often evolves via analogy. The
Interstate Commerce Act, for example, was established in 1887 to oversee the
railroad industry but was an
important legal framework for
regulating the petroleum, trucking, civil aviation, and telecommunications
industries for many decades after its establishment. Regulatory bodies compared
new industries to railroads and applied previously settled regulations to new

The same pattern could play out for bossware. In 1992, the NLRB came down on
Sands Hotel & Casino because management assigned guards to monitor
employees using binoculars. At first glance, such a ruling might not seem to
apply to you. But the courts could very well decide that keyloggers are
effectively modern day binoculars–meaning a lot of bossware could suddenly
become illegal without the creation of new laws.

Federal and state regulations

The NLRB isn’t alone, though it might be leading the charge. Abruzzo notes that
she wants to take an “interagency approach” to bossware and work with agencies
like the Federal Trade Commission, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau,
the Department of Justice, and the Department of Labor to limit the use and
abuse of employee monitoring.

And that’s not all: The Center for Democracy and Technology points out that
bossware could also be illegal by way of numerous other laws,
such as:

  • The Occupational Safety and Health Act could punish companies for limiting
    bathroom breaks via monitoring and productivity quotas.

  • The Americans with Disabilities Act, could punish companies for treating
    disabled employees differently due to the results of employee monitoring.

  • Federal wage and hour laws could punish companies for automatically docking
    employee wages when they leave their workstations.

  • The Family and Medical Leave Act could punish companies for restricting
    employees with qualifying medical conditions from taking intermittent breaks.

So far, we’ve just covered federal laws. The laws differ from state to state: New York,
Connecticut, and Delaware laws all require employers to notify employees of
monitoring activities upon hiring them. And as of January 1, 2023, California
updated its major data privacy law, extending some of the protections offered
by the CCPA, via the CPRA, to employees.

International bossware laws

Outside the U.S., many countries are much more aggressive in balancing the
rights of employees against employers. And for companies with remote
workforces, this can come as a rude awakening.

A particularly good example occurred in 2022 when a Dutch court
fined a Florida firm for
punishing an employee who refused to keep his webcam on all day on the grounds
that it made him uncomfortable.

In response, the firm fired him, citing insubordination. The court disagreed,
ruling that video surveillance of an employee constituted a “considerable
intrusion into the employee’s private life.” The takeaway here isn’t that
companies should stay out of The Netherlands, of course–it’s that a remote,
globalized world requires a different touch to managing your workforce.

As a small sample, consider a few other European laws:

  • In Austria, the Austrian Labor Constitution Act requires employers to either
    get the consent of all employees or of an employee work council before
    monitoring them.

  • In France, the French Data Protection Authority ruled that, outside of a
    strong business justification,” companies
    cannot use keyloggers.

  • In Germany, employers can’t use much of the passive monitoring we’ve talked
    about so far. Instead, German employers can only implement monitoring after
    establishing reasonable suspicion of unprofessional behavior.

Four Questions to Ask Before Implementing Bossware

So far, we’ve sketched the broad strokes of the legal risks of bossware, but
how do you assess it on an individual level if you’re a CISO, an IT
administrator, or a manager?

Here’s a good place to start to assess whether a particular form of
surveillance is legal or necessary.

1.Does it suppress unionization?

We’ve already talked about the potential for bossware to be a de facto
union-busting tool, which is clearly illegal. So if you believe your company is
investing in a tool for purely productivity or security-related purposes, then
discuss how you can prevent it from being misused to suppress organizing.

It’s also worth considering how an existing union might react to surveillance.
In her memo, Abruzzo not only explained how the NLRB would enforce extant laws
but signaled that the NLRB would likely support unions complaining about
bossware. The previously cited research shows that 88% of employers
terminated workers after implementing bossware, so new unions would undoubtedly
examine these kinds of tools. A 2014 NLRB ruling shows that even giving the impression of unlawful surveillance
can make companies liable.

2. Does it pose a major risk in the event of a data breach?

A major reason companies might want to limit the collection of personal
information (via bossware or otherwise) is that a data breach could expose
personal information to bad actors.

Companies might get punished, then, not for the usage of bossware but for poor
security practices that made personal information captured by bossware
vulnerable to attackers. It’s a good reason to return to the classic data
security principle of data minimization and consider whether the benefits of
bossware outweigh the risks of storing such sensitive data.

3. Does it open you up to personal liability?

Companies establish LLCs, as the name implies, to limit liability. Companies can
collapse while individuals can slip away–often with golden parachutes.
Increasingly, however, government agencies are targeting individuals.

Joe Sullivan, former chief security officer for Uber, for example,
pled guilty in 2022 to covering up a data breach. Employers
will want to be especially careful about implementing dubiously legal policies
if they, as individuals, can be found liable.

4. Does it violate discrimination laws?

As we wrote above, Abruzzo emphasized taking an “interagency” approach to
enforcing laws against workplace surveillance. That means companies have to
watch out for restrictions coming from multiple directions. One very likely
direction is via anti-discrimination laws.

For example, a company might discriminate against a mother by punishing her
for taking breaks to breastfeed, among a host of other possibilities.

Surveil With Care

Legal threats aside, there’s a simpler reason you should push back against
bossware at your organization: It’s bad for workers, and there’s compelling
evidence it’s bad for employers, too.

For employees, bossware can create intense feelings of stress and anxiety.
ExpressVPN research shows that 56% of
monitored employees feel stress and anxiety about surveillance, and 32% take
fewer breaks because of it. Are short-term productivity gains worth
long-term employee unhappiness and burnout?

For employers, even if we assume that bossware increases productivity
(and researchers are divided on whether it does), its overall effectiveness is
doubtful. Employee paranoia and resentment come at their own costs. A
Harvard Business Review study showed, for example,
that monitored employees were “substantially more likely to take unapproved
breaks, disregard instructions, damage workplace property, steal office
equipment, and purposefully work at a slow pace, among other rule-breaking

As we covered at the beginning, beneath the desire to monitor employees is the
desire to ensure productivity and security–both of which are reasonable goals
to pursue. Bossware, however, is a blunt instrument, and likely the wrong
instrument, for succeeding here.

If you want to monitor productivity, focus less on behavior and more on
. In other words: if an employee is hitting their numbers, it’s really
none of your business how often they go to the bathroom.

If security is your concern, privacy should be as well–even if that seems
counterintuitive at first. The more you intrude on employees, the more likely
they are to try to evade surveillance altogether
, which increases the
likelihood of unsafe behaviors on unmanaged devices. Instead of tracking their
every move, be surgical and thoughtful about the data you collect.

And if you really, really need to monitor employees: be transparent. Your
employees have the right to know how you’re monitoring them and what information
you’re collecting and storing. Plus, if you try to be secretive and your
employees find out, the coverup can end up being much worse than the crime.
You’re much better served by bringing your policies out into the light.

Here at Kolide, for example, our product collects data about employee devices,
but it does so in accordance with our philosophy of Honest Security.
We practice minimization; we collect only the data we need to keep our
customers safe. For example, we keep track of an employee’s browser
extensions–because those can present a security risk–but we deliberately don’t
monitor browser history. Likewise, we practice transparency; every end user can
visit our Privacy Center to see what data we collect, who can see it, and what
it can reveal about them.

This approach is the best way to get your workforce on your side, while you
stay on the right side of the law.

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Yuri Motsinger